Foot Conditions

Arch & Heel Pain

Pain on the inside of your foot’s arch or heel can affect your gait, preventing you from moving or walking around freely.

PLANTAR FASCIITIS

Heel or arch pain on the bottom of the foot is most commonly caused by an inflammation of the connective tissues between the heels and toes (plantar fascia), a condition called Plantar Fasciitis. The pain is most noticeable after getting out of bed in the morning.

ACHILLES TENDINITIS

Achilles Tendinitis is an irritation or inflammation of the tendon that attaches to the back of the heel bone. The condition can be caused by poor biomechanics, injury, over-training or improper warm ups.

HAGLUND’S DEFORMITY

Haglund’s deformity is a bone enlargement at the back of the heel in the area where the Achilles Tendon inserts in the heel bone. The deformity generally is caused by poor biomechanics, which increases friction of the heel bone against the back of the shoe.

HEEL SPURS

Heel spurs are growths of bone that develop on the underside of the heel bone, usually diagnose through radiographs. Heel spurs can occur with or without pain.

CAUSES OF ARCH & HEEL PAIN

  • Improper Footwear
  • Excessive weight gain
  • Over-training or improper warm ups
  • Poor Biomechanics (often this is genetically related)
  • Injury or Trauma from repetitive damage to bones, muscles, ligaments or tendons over time
  • Muscle imbalance or tightness of the muscles on the back of the leg
  • Over-stretching the long band of tissue that connects the heel and the ball of the foot

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Avoid injury or trauma
  • Wear appropriate shoe gear
  • Maintain your ideal body weight
  • RICE – rest, ice, compression, and elevation
  • Warm up and stretch properly before and after exercise

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform Foot Mobilisation Technique to increase foot stability
  • Perform a physical examination to diagnose your problem
  • Prescribe appropriate medications, if necessary
  • Administer injections, if necessary
  • Prescribe custom made orthotics
  • Advise proper footwear for you
Arch & Heel Pain

Arthritis

Arthritis, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, can be common in the feet due to the amount of force that goes through the joints during walking and running.  Symptoms of arthritis include, swelling, redness, pain, stiffness, and joint deformity.

Arthritis

CAUSES OF ARTHRITIS

  • Heredity
  • Age
  • Excessive weight
  • Systemic disease
  • Ill-fitting shoes
  • Trauma

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Wear supportive shoes at home and outside
  • Wear orthotics to reduce pressure points
  • Soak feet in lukewarm water to help relieve pain

WHAT CAN YOUR CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a biomechanical examination and gait analysis
  • Assess the needs of custom orthotics
  • Assess if Foot Moblisation Therapy is ideal for you
  • Advise on proper footwear and OTC toe supports
  • Recommend consultations with an orthopedic surgeon in severe cases

Bunions

Bunions, a common foot complication, occur when the big toe gets slightly displaced. This happens because of enlargement and protruding of the joint at the base of the big toe, leading to the bone in that area getting deformed. When the bunion constantly rubs against tight footwear, it can cause pain, inflammation and irritation. In severe cases of an enlarged bunion, toes can overlap each other, causing other serious foot complications, such as bursitis, hammer toes, or even arthritis in the joint.

Bunions

CAUSES OF BUNIONS

  • Trauma
  • Heredity
  • Poor Biomechanics
  • Congenital deformities
  • Neuromuscular disorders
  • Inflammatory joint disease (arthritis)
  • Ill-fitting shoes can aggravate the situation

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Apply cold compresses
  • Wear shoes with good supports and a wide toe box
  • Soak the foot in lukewarm water to help relieve pain

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Prescribe custom made orthotics
  • Advise on proper footwear and OTC toe supports
  • Assess if Foot Mobilisation Technique is ideal for you
  • Recommend consultation with an orthopedic surgeon in severe cases
  • Determine if there is an underlying biomechanical problem associated with your condition so that once treated, it can minimize progression of the bunions

Children’s Feet – Sever’s Disease (A.K.A. Calcaneal Apophysitis)

The main symptom of Sever’s Disease is pain and tenderness in the heel.  This is a result of inflammation of the growth plate (epiphyseal plate) in the heel, which can worsen with physical activity.  This condition is common in growing kids during early puberty between the ages of 8-13 in girls, and 10-15 in boys.

Children's Feet

CAUSES OF SEVER’S DISEASE

When children go through a rapid growth spurt in early puberty, the heel bone sometimes grows faster than the leg muscles and tendons that are attached to it.  As a result, these muscles and tendons become too tight and the ankles become less flexible.  Over time, repeated stress on the growth plate as children continue with their physical activities can cause swelling, tenderness, and pain in the heel.

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Wear supportive shoes
  • Apply ice to the injured heel
  • Reduce or avoid all activities that cause heel pain
  • Perform foot and leg exercises to stretch and strengthen the muscles and tendons

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform biomechanical examination and gait analysis
  • Recommend shoe changes
  • Assess the needs of custom orthotics to reduce strain on the Achilles tendon

Corns & Calluses

Thickening and hardening of foot skin localized to a specific area is called a corn, while a diffused area of thick skin is called a callus. This foot condition is caused due to excessive pressure on certain areas of your feet. If left untreated, calluses or corns may result in an infection or ulceration of the skin and can be quite painful.

Corns-Calluses

CAUSES OF CORNS AND CALLUSES

  • Heredity
  • Ill-fitting shoes
  • Muscular or biomechanical imbalance
  • Bone spur or bony prominence

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Wear a supportive shoe even when you are at home
  • Soak you feet in Epsom salt water to relieve pain
  • Apply urea-based cream frequently to keep skin soft

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Perform trimming and padding
  • Prescribe custom made orthotics
  • Advise on proper footwear

Diabetes

High levels of blood sugar over time can cause permanently damage to body tissues and nerves, including blood vessels (diabetic angiopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy) and even sweat glands of the skin (autonomic neuropathy). Because of this, you may also be less sensitive to pain, especially in the feet. People with diabetes must check their feet on a daily basis, looking for puncture wounds, bruises, pressure areas, redness, warmth, blisters, ulcers, scratches, cuts and nail problems. If there’s a wound that is not healing properly, it can be infected and lead to amputation.

BFO-00-2

IF YOU HAVE DIABETES

DO:

  • Exercise, Lose weight & Give up smoking
  • Maintain a reasonable blood sugar level
  • Wash and check your feet every day
  • Look for sores, blisters, signs of infection
  • Be properly fitted every time you buy new shoes
  • Wear shoes with thick and soft socks all times
  • Always wear properly fitting shoes to prevent injury
  • Visit your chiropodist on a regular basis

DON’T:

  • Walk around barefoot, even at home
  • Wear high heels, sandals or shoes with pointed toes
  • Wear anything that is too tight around the legs
  • Remove calluses, corns or warts by yourself

Flat Feet

Flat feet are generally associated with excessive pronation, where the back of the heels lean toward the center line. To a certain degree, flat feet are normal in infants and toddlers. Their feet are mostly flexible and the longitudinal arch will begin to develop throughout childhood. Most children with flat feet do not experience pain or other problems. However, if there is pain in the foot, ankle, or lower leg when walking and running, flat feet should be evaluated by a chiropodist.

Flat-Feet

CAUSES OF FLAT FEET

  • Heredity
  • Trauma
  • Musculoskeletal disorders

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Wear supportive shoes

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform biomechanical examination and gait analysis
  • Assess the needs of custom orthotics
  • Recommend shoe changes

Fungal Toenails

A fungal infection of the nail, or onychomycosis, is the most common nail complication we see in our clinic. It is characterized by thickening and discolouration of the nails. The discoloration may start off as white, progressing to a more noticeable yellow colour with a slight foul odour.

This condition is often ignored because the infection can be present for years without any pain. However, if left untreated, fungi could also spread to other toenails and it may become thick and crumbly, eventually causing the nails to be separated from the nail bed.

Fungal-Toenails

CAUSES OF FUNGAL NAILS

  • Humid or moist work condition
  • Inability to maintain proper foot and footwear hygiene
  • Sharing nail clippers, footwear or socks with someone affected by fungal nails
  • Excessively sweaty feet
  • History of injury to the nail
  • History of Athlete’s foot
  • Walking barefoot in damp public spaces

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Practice good foot hygiene
  • daily washing of the feet with soap and water
  • drying feet carefully, especially between the toes
  • Keep shoes and socks dry
  • Shower shoes should be worn when possible in public areas
  • Disinfect home pedicure tools and instruments
  • Don’t apply polish to nails suspected of infection

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Prescribe appropriate anti-fungal medication
  • Perform debridement or removal of the nail as indicated

Hammer Toes

Hammer toes are changes in the small toe joints often caused by poor biomechanics of the feet. Unbalanced muscle contraction during walking and running can cause the bone structure to become rigid over time and painful. Early diagnosed hammer toes can be treated with functional orthotics, however, in more severe cases, bone surgery may be required.

Hammer Toes

CAUSES OF HAMMER TOES

  • Heredity
  • Poor biomechanics in lower extremities
  • Tight footwear
  • Arthritis

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Wear shoes with a deep toe box
  • Soak feet in lukewarm water to relieve pain

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform biomechanical examination and gait analysis
  • Assess the needs of custom orthotics
  • Assess if Foot Moblisation Therapy is ideal for you
  • Advise on proper footwear and OTC foot products

Ingrown Toenail

An ingrown toenail can be painful when the nail starts to dig into the surrounding skin causing redness, swelling and possible infection. This condition is especially serious for people with diabetes due to insensate feet, impaired circulation, and slow healing rate.

Ingrown Toenail

CAUSES OF INGROWN TOENAILS

  • Heredity
  • Improper nail trimming
  • Trauma
  • Pressure from ill-fitting shoes
  • Biomechanical foot imbalances

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Trim toenails straight across as a preventative measure
  • Select the proper shoe style and size
  • Seek the help of your chiropodist

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Remove the offending nail border
  • Prescribe appropriate medications, such as antibiotics
  • Perform nail surgery, if necessary

Neuromas

Sharp, burning pain in the ball of the feet and stinging or numbing of toes is a sign of Morton’s neuroma. This is caused by irritation and inflammation of the nerves at the ball of the foot, usually affecting the area between the third and fourth toes. Sometimes the pain travels from the ball of the foot to the toes.

Neuromas

CAUSES OF NEUROMAS

  • Heredity
  • Improper or ill-fitting shoes
  • Biomechanical imbalance
  • Trauma
  • High-heeled shoes

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Change to shoes with lower heels
  • Wear supportive shoes with a roomy toe box
  • Soak and ice your feet for temporary relief

WHAT CAN CHIROPODIST DO?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Prescribe custom made orthotics
  • If Foot Mobilisation Technique is right for you
  • Prescribe anti-inflammatory medication, if necessary
  • Administer injections, if necessary

Warts

This skin condition is caused by Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), which usually thrive in damp areas, such as public shower areas, swimming pools and hot tubs. Warts are often misdiagnosed as calluses or corns due to thickening of skin. Children are more susceptible to getting warts than adults due to their lower immune systems. The virus is transmitted directly from communal surfaces, as it enters the body through cuts and abrasions in the skin. Symptoms of the infection can become visible in a few weeks or even months later.

Warts

WHAT CAN YOU DO?

  • Avoid walking barefoot in showers or swimming pools
  • Wash feet daily and keep them dry

WHAT CAN YOUR CHIROPODIST DO FOR YOU?

  • Perform a physical examination
  • Apply medication to the wart(s)
  • Perform Verruca Needling, if necessary

To schedule an appointment with our foot specialist, please call 905-425-3338